QRFP, an RFamide peptide, was recently identified as an endogenous ligand of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR103. Recent investigation revealed that acute intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of QRFP26/P518/26RFa, a constitutive part of QRFP43 (43-amino acid-residue form of QRFP), increases appetite in mice, but its role in long-term energy homeostasis remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic administration of QRFP43 on feeding behavior, body weight regulation, and energy expenditure in mice. Intracerebroventricular infusion of QRFP43 for 13 d resulted in a significant increase in body weight and fat mass with hyperphagia. Weight gain and hyperphagia were more evident when mice were fed a moderately high-fat diet. Pair feeding of QRFP43-infused mice did not increase body weight but significantly increased fat mass and plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, and cholesterol when compared with controls. Moreover, significant decreases in rectal temperature and expression of brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein-1 mRNA were observed in QRFP43-infused ad libitum- and pair-fed mice. The present results suggest that QRFP plays an important role in energy homeostasis by regulating appetite and energy expenditure.