Metabolic syndrome: connecting and reconciling cardiovascular and diabetes worlds

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Mar 21;47(6):1093-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.11.046. Epub 2006 Feb 23.


The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors of metabolic origin that are accompanied by increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. These risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, elevated plasma glucose, a prothrombotic state, and a proinflammatory state. The two major underlying risk factors for the metabolic syndrome are obesity and insulin resistance; exacerbating factors are physical inactivity, advancing age, and endocrine and genetic factors. The condition is progressive, beginning with borderline risk factors that eventually progress to categorical risk factors. In many patients, the metabolic syndrome culminates in type 2 diabetes, which further increases risk for cardiovascular disease. Primary treatment of the metabolic syndrome is lifestyle therapy--weight loss, increased physical activity, and anti-atherogenic diet. But as the condition progresses, drug therapies directed toward the individual risk factors might be required. Ultimately, it might be possible to develop drugs that will simultaneously modify all of the risk factors. At present such drugs are in development but so far have not reached the level of clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Terminology as Topic