Patients with neuropathic pain frequently experience hypersensitivity to cold stimulation. However, the underlying mechanisms of this enhanced sensitivity to cold are not well understood. After partial nerve injury, the transient receptor potential ion channel TRPV1 increases in the intact small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in several neuropathic pain models. In the present study, we precisely examined the incidence of cold hyperalgesia and the changes of TRPA1 and TRPM8 expression in the L4 and L5 DRG following L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL), because it is likely that the activation of two distinct populations of TRPA1- and TRPM8-expressing small neurons underlie the sensation of cold. We first confirmed that L5 SNL rats developed cold hyperalgesia for more than 14 days after surgery. In the nearby uninjured L4 DRG, TRPA1 mRNA expression increased in trkA-expressing small-to-medium diameter neurons from the 1st to 14th day after the L5 SNL. This upregulation corresponded well with the development and maintenance of nerve injury-induced cold hyperalgesia of the hind paw. In contrast, there was no change in the expression of the TRPM8 mRNA/protein in the L4 DRG throughout the 2-week time course of the experiment. In the injured L5 DRG, on the other hand, both TRPA1 and TRPM8 expression decreased over 2 weeks after ligation. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of TRPA1, but not TRPM8, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide suppressed the L5 SNL-induced cold hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that increased TRPA1 in uninjured primary afferent neurons may contribute to the exaggerated response to cold observed in the neuropathic pain model.