Acceptability of self-taken vaginal swabs and first-catch urine samples for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with an amplified DNA assay in young women attending a public health sexually transmitted disease clinic

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Aug;33(8):491-5. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000204619.87066.28.


Objectives: Public health efforts are needed to encourage young women to get tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC).

Goal: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of 2 noninvasive diagnostic approaches.

Study design: Participants of this cross-sectional survey were 413 young women (age 16-35) who underwent STD testing by self-taken vaginal swab (SVS) and a first-catch urine sample (FCU) by nucleic acid amplification test (BDProbTec) and filled out a questionnaire.

Results: CT and GC were diagnosed in 10.9% (45/413) and 1.5% (6/413). Eleven percent of the participants who never previously had an STD examination (68%) tested STD positive. SVS and FCU were almost uniformly reported as easy to perform and preferred above gynecologic examination.

Conclusions: Using SVS combined with FCU can be an important enhancing tool in public health approaches. Acceptability among potential patients is high, enabling the noninvasive detection of STDs that would otherwise remain undetected and untreated.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Chlamydia Infections / diagnosis*
  • Chlamydia Infections / microbiology
  • Chlamydia Infections / prevention & control
  • Chlamydia Infections / urine
  • Chlamydia trachomatis / isolation & purification
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • DNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • Female
  • Gonorrhea / diagnosis*
  • Gonorrhea / microbiology
  • Gonorrhea / prevention & control
  • Gonorrhea / urine
  • Humans
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / isolation & purification
  • Netherlands
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care*
  • Self Care*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / diagnosis*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / microbiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / prevention & control
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / urine
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urinalysis
  • Vaginal Smears


  • DNA, Bacterial