Gain of 11q/cyclin D1 overexpression is an essential early step in skin cancer development and causes abnormal tissue organization and differentiation

Oncogene. 2006 Jul 27;25(32):4399-412. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1209474. Epub 2006 Mar 20.


Non-melanoma skin cancers, in particular keratoacanthomas (KAs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), have become highly frequent tumor types especially in immune-suppressed transplant patients. Nevertheless, little is known about essential genetic changes. As a paradigm of 'early' changes, that is, changes still compatible with tumor regression, we studied KAs by comparative genomic hybridization and show that gain of chromosome 11q is not only one of the most frequent aberration (8/18), but in four tumors also the only aberration. Furthermore, 11q gain correlated with amplification of the cyclin D1 locus (10/14), as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein (25/31), as detected by immunohistochemistry. For unraveling the functional consequence, we overexpressed cyclin D1 in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. These cells only gained little growth advantage in conventional and in organotypic co-cultures. However, although the control vector-transfected cells formed a well-stratified and orderly differentiated epidermis-like epithelium, they showed deregulation of tissue architecture with an altered localization of proliferation and impaired differentiation. The most severe phenotype was seen in a clone that additionally upregulated cdk4 and p21. These cells lacked terminal differentiation, exhibited a more autonomous growth in vitro and in vivo and even formed tumors in two injection sites with a growth pattern resembling that of human KAs. Thus, our results identify 11q13 gain/cyclin D1 overexpression as an important step in KA formation and point to a function that exceeds its known role in proliferation by disrupting tissue organization and thereby allowing abnormal growth.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aneuploidy*
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics*
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11*
  • Clone Cells
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis*
  • Cyclin D1 / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Keratoacanthoma / etiology
  • Keratoacanthoma / genetics
  • Keratoacanthoma / metabolism
  • Keratoacanthoma / pathology
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • Skin Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology*


  • Cyclin D1