The assessment of urinary schistosomiasis in individuals coming from endemic areas often requires diagnostic resources not used in areas of exposure in order to determine complications or to establish more precise criteria of cure. Cystoscopy and 24-hour urine examination were performed, after treatments with praziquantel 40 mg/kg body weight, single dose, on 25 Brazilian military men who were part of a United Nations peace mission to Mozambique in 1994. The median age of the individuals was 29 years and all presented a positive urine parasitological exam. The alterations detected by cystoscopy were hyperemia and granulomas in the vesical submucosa in 59.1% of the individuals and only granulomas in 40.9%. A vesical biopsy revealed granulomas in all patients and viable eggs in 77.3% even after a period during which the patients no longer excreted eggs in urine. Cystoscopy after treatment, followed by biopsy and histopathological evaluation, performed in areas where the evolution of the disease can be better monitored, was found to be a safe criterion of parasitological cure.