Assessment of basic indirect pharmacodynamic response models with physiological limits

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Apr;33(2):167-93. doi: 10.1007/s10928-006-9003-7.


Many physiological factors are regulated by homeostatic mechanisms to maintain normal body function. Empirical lower Rl (Model I and IV) or upper Rh limits (Model II and III) were included in current basic indirect response (IDR) models to account for the additional role of physiological limits (IDRPL). Various characteristics of these models were evaluated with simulations and explicit equations. The simulations reveal that the expanded models exhibit most properties of basic indirect response models, such as slow response initiation, lag time between the kinetic and dynamic peaks, a large dose plateau, and shift in Tmax with dose. The proposed models always produce lesser net responses than predicted by basic IDR models. Simulations demonstrate that addition of a parameter limit which is close to the baseline has a great influence on the overall and maximum responses and fitted model parameters. Only stimulatory IDRPL Models III and IV allow resolution of all model parameters in the absence of clear indications or predetermined values of the lower or upper limits. However, all four models are able to resolve model parameters when subgroups with different baselines are simultaneously fitted. These models create new interpretations of the determinants of baseline conditions which can be important in assessing inter-subject variability in responses. The applicability of IDRPL models is demonstrated using several examples from the published literature. Indirect response models with physiological limits will be useful in characterizing drug responses for turnover systems which are maintained within a certain range.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors
  • Adult
  • Aldehyde Reductase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Algorithms
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Erythrocytes / drug effects
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism
  • Homeostasis / drug effects*
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Indolizines / administration & dosage
  • Indolizines / pharmacokinetics
  • Indolizines / pharmacology
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Naphthalenes / administration & dosage
  • Naphthalenes / pharmacokinetics
  • Naphthalenes / pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage*
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism
  • Sorbitol / metabolism


  • 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • FR 146687
  • Indolizines
  • Naphthalenes
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • tolrestat
  • Sorbitol
  • Aldehyde Reductase