Studies on apple and blueberry fruit constituents: do the polyphenols reach the colon after ingestion?

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Apr;50(4-5):418-23. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200500211.


The aim of our studies was to determine the amount of polyphenols reaching the colon after oral intake of apple juice and blueberries. After a polyphenol-free diet healthy ileostomy volunteers consumed a polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice while others consumed anthocyanin-rich blueberries. Ileostomy effluent was collected and polyphenols were identified using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS; quantification was performed with HPLC-DAD. Most of the orally administered apple polyphenols were absorbed from or metabolized in the small intestine. Between 0 and 33% of the oral dose was recovered in the ileostomy bags with a maximum of excretion after 2 h. A higher amount of the blueberry anthocyanins under study (up to 85%, depending on the sugar moiety) were determined in the ileostomy bags and therefore would reach the colon under physiological circumstances. Such structure-related availability has to be considered when polyphenols are used in model systems to study potential preventive effects in colorectal diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / administration & dosage
  • Anthocyanins / analysis
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacokinetics
  • Biological Availability
  • Blueberry Plants / chemistry*
  • Body Fluids / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Colon / metabolism*
  • Flavonoids / administration & dosage
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Flavonoids / pharmacokinetics*
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Ileostomy
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Phenols / administration & dosage
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics*
  • Polyphenols
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization


  • Anthocyanins
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenols
  • Polyphenols