Progression of oral snuff use among Finnish 13-16-year-old students and its relation to smoking behaviour

Addiction. 2006 Apr;101(4):581-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01346.x.


Aims: To examine the progression of oral moist snuff use among adolescents and its relation to smoking behaviour and nicotine addiction.

Design and setting: A 3-year smoking prevention study in 27 schools of Helsinki, Finland, starting with the seventh grade to the ninth grade.

Participants and measurements: Pupils (n=2816) completed questionnaires four times, which included information on smoking behaviour, snuff experiments, nicotine addiction (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire) and other activities.

Findings: The prevalence of snuff experimentation rose among boys from 7% in the seventh grade to 43% 3 years later in the ninth grade, and among girls from 2% to 13% for the corresponding period. Among boys, smoking predicted later snuff use in all assessments and snuff experimentation predicted later weekly smoking. The impact of snuff experimentation upon later smoking experimentation was smaller than vice versa. Among boys active in sports, smoking was less common but snuff use was more common. Combined use was common; by the end of the follow-up only 10% of weekly smokers had not tried oral snuff. Nicotine dependence scores increased linearly with snuff use among weekly smokers.

Conclusions: Despite the European Union sales ban on oral snuff products since 1995, in Finland snuff use is common among boys. Although combined use of snuff and cigarettes is associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence among adolescent boys, the direction of causality is not known. Unlike cigarette smoking, oral snuff use was tried among boys who spent their free time with sports-related activities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology
  • Disease Progression
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / etiology
  • Tobacco, Smokeless*