Late preterm infants (34-37 weeks gestation) pose unique challenges to physicians and nurses involved in their care after birth. They may be cared for in different units within hospitals after birth, including Neonatal Intensive Care Units, Newborn Nurseries, or rooming in with the mother. As a result of their gestational age and birth weight, the late preterm infant is often assessed quickly and triaged identical to term infants. Such practice can potentially result in a lack of attention to important components for successful transition after birth. Cold stress and hypoglycemia are the two important problems in late preterm infants which require immediate treatment. Thus, surveillance of these and other physiological variables is needed to insure that they do not affect successful adaptation during the early hours and days after birth.