Evaluation of universal, indicated, and combined cognitive-behavioral approaches to the prevention of depression among adolescents

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006 Feb;74(1):66-79. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.66.


A cluster, stratified randomized design was used to evaluate the impact of universal, indicated, and combined universal plus indicated cognitive- behavioral approaches to the prevention of depression among 13- to 15-year-olds initially reporting elevated symptoms of depression. None of the intervention approaches differed significantly from a no-intervention condition or from each other on changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, externalizing problems, coping skills, and social adjustment. All high-symptom students, irrespective of condition, showed a significant decline in depressive symptoms and improvement in emotional well-being over time although they still demonstrated elevated levels of psychopathology compared with the general population of peers at 12-month follow-up. There were also no significant intervention effects for the universal intervention in comparison with no intervention for the total sample of students in those conditions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / prevention & control*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Promotion*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychotherapy, Brief*
  • Queensland
  • Risk Factors
  • School Health Services*