Nutrient availability and growth: regulation of insulin signaling by dFOXO/FOXO1

Cell Cycle. 2006 Mar;5(5):503-5. doi: 10.4161/cc.5.5.2501. Epub 2006 Mar 1.


Organisms adjust their rate of growth depending on the availability of nutrients. Thus, when environmental conditions limit nutrients, growth is slowed and is only restored after food again becomes abundant. Many aspects of the molecular mechanisms that govern this complex control system remain unknown. However, it has been shown that the insulin/IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) receptor pathway, together with the FOXO family of transcription factors, play an important role in this process. Recent studies with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have provided new insights into the regulatory circuitry that controls both growth and gene expression in response to nutrient availability.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Animals
  • Drosophila Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism*
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Receptor, Insulin / genetics
  • Signal Transduction*


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • FOXO protein, Drosophila
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Insulin
  • Receptor, Insulin