Purpose of review: In this review we will highlight the recent novel contributions to the treatment of renal cell carcinoma in the fields of anti-angiogenesis, immunotherapeutics, and surgical management. In addition, this review will update recent advances in diagnostic and imaging modalities for renal cell carcinoma and dietary and environmental relationships to the epidemiology of this growing disease.
Recent findings: Advancements in the use of innovative treatment strategies for the management of localized renal cell carcinoma and the introduction of new targeted therapeutics with benefit in the metastatic setting has produced a major impact on the treatment of this disease.
Summary: The management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma has undergone a revolution in the past year with groundbreaking treatment strategies encompassing a broad range of therapeutic modalities. At the other end of the spectrum, emerging data is beginning to change our perspective about the management of small, localized renal tumors that are being discovered with increasing frequency. This review will update recent findings supporting diet and tobacco exposure as etiologic factors in the development of renal cell carcinoma, the molecular concepts that underlie the disease and the targeted therapeutics designed to inhibit specific kinase activities, and emerging use of minimally invasive therapies for localized disease.