Purpose of review: The purpose of this article is to briefly review the literature of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma, its risk factors, the pathophysiology, and treatment options. In particular, literature pertaining to glaucoma in response to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide will be reviewed.
Recent findings: Primary open-angle glaucoma, status as a glaucoma suspect, and a family history of glaucoma are risk factors for an ocular hypertensive response with the use of corticosteroid therapy. Recent studies suggest that younger age may also be a risk factor in patients treated via the intravitreal route with corticosteroids. The mechanism of elevated intraocular pressure is increased aqueous outflow resistance owing to an accumulation of extracellular matrix material in the trabecular meshwork.
Summary: Corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma has been recognized for more than 50 years. Knowing the risk factors, prevalence, and pathophysiology can help the clinician prevent, monitor, and treat corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma.