In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar 7;12(9):1379-85. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i9.1379.


Aim: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction,Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

Methods: A liver injury model was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined with an automatic multifunction-biochemical analyzer and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)and TNF-alpha were determined following the instructions of SOD kit and TNF radioimmunoassay kit. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for histological evaluation and examined under light microscope.

Results: We found that GLPG can alleviate the L-02 liver cells injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through the measurements of ALT and AST activities and the administration of GLPG to L-02 cells did not display any toxicity. Furthermore, histological analysis of mice liver injury induced by CCl4 with or without GLPG pretreatment indicated that GLPG can significantly suppress the toxicity induced by CCl4 in mice liver. We also found that GLPG reduced TNF-alpha level induced by CCl4 in the plasma of mice, whereas increased SOD activity in the rat serum.

Conclusion: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-alpha level and the free radical scavenging activity.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alanine Transaminase / analysis
  • Animals
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / analysis
  • Carbon Tetrachloride
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
  • Hepatocytes / drug effects
  • Hepatocytes / pathology
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Diseases / pathology
  • Liver Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mycelium / chemistry*
  • Organ Size
  • Proteoglycans / isolation & purification
  • Proteoglycans / pharmacology*
  • Radioimmunoassay
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Superoxide Dismutase / analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis


  • Proteoglycans
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Carbon Tetrachloride
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase