A massive neutrophil influx in the intestine is the histopathological hallmark of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-induced enterocolitis in humans. Two major hypotheses on the mechanism leading to neutrophil infiltration in the intestinal mucosa have emerged. One hypothesis suggests that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium takes an active role in triggering this host response by injecting proteins, termed effectors, into the host cell cytosol which induce a proinflammatory gene expression profile in the intestinal epithelium. The second hypothesis suggests a more passive role for the pathogen by proposing that bacterial invasion stimulates the innate pathways of inflammation because the pathogen-associated molecular patterns of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors on cells in the lamina propria. A review of the current literature reveals that, while pathogen recognition receptors are clearly involved in eliciting neutrophil influx during S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, a direct contribution of effectors in triggering proinflammatory host cell responses cannot currently be ruled out.