Therapeutic interventions for tone abnormalities in cerebral palsy

NeuroRx. 2006 Apr;3(2):217-24. doi: 10.1016/j.nurx.2006.01.008.


Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common cause of movement disorders in children. The upper motor neuron syndrome of CP leads to several types of muscle overactivity, including spasticity. Reduction of muscle overactivity may be an important treatment goal, to improve comfort, care, and active function and to prevent future musculoskeletal complications. After a comprehensive team evaluation, a treatment plan is generated. Treatments may include physical and occupational therapy, oral medications, botulinum toxin and/or phenol injections, intrathecal baclofen, selective dorsal rhizotomy, and orthopedic surgery. Successful and early prevention of contracture may reduce the need for later corrective surgery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Anti-Dyskinesia Agents / therapeutic use
  • Baclofen / administration & dosage
  • Baclofen / therapeutic use
  • Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use
  • Cerebral Palsy / physiopathology*
  • Cerebral Palsy / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Muscle Relaxants, Central / administration & dosage
  • Muscle Relaxants, Central / therapeutic use
  • Muscle Tonus*
  • Orthopedic Procedures
  • Phenol / therapeutic use
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Rhizotomy


  • Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
  • Muscle Relaxants, Central
  • Phenol
  • Botulinum Toxins
  • Baclofen