Discovery of eight novel divergent homologs expressed in cattle placenta

Physiol Genomics. 2006 May 16;25(3):405-13. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00307.2005. Epub 2006 Mar 22.


Ten divergent homologs were identified using a subtractive bioinformatic analysis of 12,614 cattle placenta expressed sequence tags followed by comparative, evolutionary, and gene expression studies. Among the 10 divergent homologs, 8 have not been identified previously. These were named as follows: cattle cerebrum and skeletal muscle-specific transcript 1 (CSSMST1), cattle intestine-specific transcript 1 (CIST1), hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 amino-terminal domain-containing protein (HAVCRNDP), prolactin-related proteins 8, 9, and 11 (PRP8, PRP9, and PRP11, respectively) and secreted and transmembrane protein 1A and 1B (SECTM1A and SECTM1B, respectively). In addition, two previously known divergent genes were identified, trophoblast Kunitz domain protein 1 (TKDP1) and a new splice variant of TKDP4. Nucleotide substitution analysis provided evidence for positive selection in members of the PRP gene family, SECTM1A and SECTM1B. Gene expression profiles, motif predictions, and annotations of homologous sequences indicate immunological and reproductive functions of the divergent homologs. The genes identified in this study are thus of evolutionary and physiological importance and may have a role in placental adaptations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cattle / genetics*
  • Computational Biology / methods
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Pan troglodytes / genetics
  • Placenta / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy Proteins / chemistry
  • Pregnancy Proteins / genetics*
  • Pregnancy Proteins / metabolism
  • Radiation Hybrid Mapping
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid*


  • Pregnancy Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/BK005439
  • GENBANK/BK005440