Blood glucose lowering by means of lifestyle intervention has different effects on adipokines as compared with insulin treatment in subjects with type 2 diabetes

Diabetologia. 2006 May;49(5):872-80. doi: 10.1007/s00125-006-0205-8. Epub 2006 Mar 23.


Aims/hypothesis: Adipokines may be important in mediating signals from adipocytes to insulin-sensitive tissue and vasculature. We studied the effect of different glucose-lowering therapies on serum levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), TNF-alpha, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who were receiving oral hypoglycaemic agents were allocated to one of the following groups, and treated for 1 year: (1) lifestyle intervention (L); (2) insulin treatment (I); and (3) combined treatment (L+I).

Results: Similar improvements in glycaemic control occurred in all three groups. There was a reduction in body weight of 3.0 kg (median) (95% CI -5.9 to -2.0) in group L, whereas in groups L+I and I body weight increased by 3.5 kg (95% CI 1.5-4.9) and 4.9 kg (95% CI -3.1 to 8.2), respectively. By trend analyses, group L had reduced levels of PAI-1 (p=0.002), hs-CRP (p<0.0001) and TNF-alpha (p=0.006), while no significant changes were observed in the levels of leptin or adiponectin. In group I, the median levels of PAI-1 (p=0.008), TNF-alpha (p=0.058) and leptin (p=0.004) increased. In the L+I group there was a reduction in PAI-1 levels (p=0.014) and an increase in levels of leptin (p<0.001). The differences in changes in the levels of PAI-1, hs-CRP, TNF-alpha and leptin between groups were also significant (all p<0.01).

Conclusions/interpretation: Improvement of glycaemic control through lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes had more beneficial effects on adipokine levels than when the same lowering of HbA(1c) was achieved with insulin treatment.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / rehabilitation
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insect Hormones / blood*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oligopeptides / blood*
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid / blood
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insect Hormones
  • Insulin
  • Oligopeptides
  • Triglycerides
  • adipokinetic hormone
  • Cholesterol
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid