Surgical creation of new anastomosis has been proposed as the preferred treatment for perianastomotic stenoses of fistulae. However, disadvantages of surgical approach have included (1) frequent conversion of fistula to a graft by using synthetic graft material to create a new anastomosis, (2) shortening the length of the cannulation segment by proximal autologous arteriovenous neoanastomosis, and (3) abandoning the fistula altogether in favor of a synthetic graft. We report the results of a prospective study using percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA) to treat fistulae with perianastomotic lesions. Seventy-three consecutive patients undergoing 112 PTA procedures for the treatment of perianastomotic lesions were studied. Primary and secondary patency rates were calculated. Procedure success, procedure-related complications, and conversion of fistulae to grafts were recorded. The initial success rate was 97%. The degree of stenosis before and after PTA was 81 +/- 9 and 11+/-11%, respectively. Primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 75, 51, and 41%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 94, 90, and 90%, respectively. Grade I hematoma occurred in three and vein rupture in two cases. No grafts were inserted. These outcomes are superior to those that have been reported for surgery. The outpatient PTA is safe and effective for the management of perianastomotic stenosis. Because of its advantage of fistula preservation, the percutaneous approach should be considered as the preferred first-line therapy for the management of perianastomotic fistula lesions.