A case-control study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Cases (n = 49) were patients who had one or more histologically confirmed adenomatous polyps larger than 1 cm in diameter previously removed by endoscopy. In both the cases and the community controls (n = 727), previous diet, alcohol consumption, and family history of colorectal cancer in near relatives were investigated. The family history rate of colorectal cancer was similar in the two groups. Those with adenomatous polyps were found to have a low fiber/vegetable intake (p = 0.04); in males, there was a high intake of beef (p = 0.04), milk drinks (p = 0.01), and beer (p = 0.05). This study provides further evidence for the hypothesis that dietary factors and alcohol consumption may play a role in the development of adenomatous colorectal polyps and that these factors are similar to dietary risk factors for colorectal cancer.