Sleep habits and risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in infants and young toddlers in Louisville, Kentucky

Sleep Med. 2006 Apr;7(3):211-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2005.11.003. Epub 2006 Mar 27.


Introduction: Snoring affects biobehavioral development among preschool and early school-age children. The goals of the present study were to survey the parents of a large community sample of infants and young toddlers to evaluate (a) naturalistic sleep duration and location; (b) snoring prevalence; and (c) demographic measures and sleep behaviors related to the presence of snoring either 2 or >or=3 days/week.

Methods: Questionnaires were completed by parents of children ages 2 weeks to 2 years attending well-baby checkups and were also mailed to the homes of six-month-old infants.

Results: Data from 944 children were available for analyses. No age differences were reported for total sleep duration, co-sleeping, or snoring. Average daily sleep duration was 12.5+/-1.8h (standard deviation (SD)), with daytime naps accounting for an increased proportion of total sleep duration among younger infants. Co-sleeping was reported by 15% of families. Snoring 2 days/week was reported in 11.8% and> days/week in 5.3% of participants. Survey items indicating risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) clustered into factors related to the child, their environment, and their family; restless sleep was exclusively related to snoring 2 days/week and ethnicity, sweating during sleep, and noisy breathing exclusive to snoring >or=3 days/week.

Conclusions: Young infants appear to sleep less than currently recommended. Co-sleeping is relatively common and not age-dependent through the first 2 years of life. Items relating to the child's sleep behaviors, environment, and parents' perceptions were predictive of positive report of snoring, with snoring rates consistent with a significant risk for SDB being similar to those reported for older children.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Catchment Area, Health
  • Child, Preschool
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Habits*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kentucky / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Observer Variation
  • Parents
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / epidemiology*
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes / physiopathology*
  • Snoring / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors