Modulation of aerial respiratory behaviour in a pond snail

Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2006 Nov;154(1-2):61-72. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2006.02.009. Epub 2006 Mar 6.


Aerial respiratory in Lymnaea is driven by a three-neuron CPG whose sufficiency and necessity has been directly demonstrated. While this CPG is 'hard-wired' it displays a tremendous amount of plasticity. That is, it is possible by employing specific training procedures to alter how it functions in a specific hypoxic environment. Thus, it is possible to study directly the causal mechanisms of long-term memory formation, forgetting, and modulation of the memory at a single cell level. Thus, it is possible to use a relatively simple three-neuron CPG to study not only important questions concerning regulation of important homeostatic mechanisms but to also use it to study how learning and non-declarative memory are mediated at a cellular level.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology*
  • Hypoxia
  • Learning / physiology
  • Lymnaea / physiology*
  • Models, Animal
  • Neural Pathways / cytology
  • Neural Pathways / physiology*
  • Neuronal Plasticity
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Respiration*
  • Respiratory Center / cytology
  • Respiratory Center / physiology*


  • Nitric Oxide