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Review
, 17 (4), 1112-27

Hemodialysis Vascular Access Dysfunction: A Cellular and Molecular Viewpoint

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Review

Hemodialysis Vascular Access Dysfunction: A Cellular and Molecular Viewpoint

Prabir Roy-Chaudhury et al. J Am Soc Nephrol.

Abstract

Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in the hemodialysis population. The major cause of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis as a result of neointimal hyperplasia. Despite the magnitude of the clinical problem, however, there has been a paucity of novel therapeutic interventions in this field. This is in marked contrast to a recent plethora of targeted interventions for the treatment of arterial neointimal hyperplasia after coronary angioplasty. The reasons for this are two-fold. First there has been a relative lack of cellular and molecular research that focuses on venous neointimal hyperplasia in the specific setting of hemodialysis vascular access. Second, there have been inadequate efforts by the nephrology community to translate the recent advances in molecular and interventional cardiology into therapies for hemodialysis vascular access. This review therefore (1) briefly examines the different forms of hemodialysis vascular access that are available, (2) describes the pathology and pathogenesis of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction in both polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and native arteriovenous fistulae, (3) reviews recent concepts about the pathogenesis of vascular stenosis that could potentially be applied in the setting of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, (4) summarizes novel experimental and clinical therapies that could potentially be used in the setting of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, and, finally, (5) offers some broad guidelines for future innovative translational and clinical research in this area that hopefully will reduce the huge clinical morbidity and economic costs that are associated with this condition.

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