Neuronal input pathways to the brain's biological clock and their functional significance

Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2006;182:1-71.

Abstract

Circadian rhythms are entrained daily by environmental photic and non-photic cues. The present review describes the anatomy and functional characteristics of the three major input pathways to the circadian clock mediating entrainment: the retino-hypothalamic tract, the geniculo-hypothalamic tract and the midbrain raphe projection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Afferent Pathways / cytology
  • Afferent Pathways / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Biological Clocks / physiology*
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Eye Proteins / genetics
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide / metabolism
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / cytology
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / metabolism
  • Rod Opsins / metabolism
  • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / cytology
  • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology*

Substances

  • Eye Proteins
  • PER1 protein, human
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Rod Opsins
  • melanopsin
  • Glutamic Acid