A proposal for standardization in forensic canine DNA typing: allele nomenclature of six canine-specific STR loci

J Forensic Sci. 2006 Mar;51(2):274-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00049.x.


In this study a proposal for the allele nomenclature of six polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci (PEZ3, PEZ6, PEZ8, PEZ10, FHC2161, and FHC2328) for canine genotyping (Canis lupus familiaris) is presented. The nomenclature is based on the sequence data of the polymorphic region of the microsatellite markers as recommended by the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Haemogenetics (ISFH) in 1994 for human DNA typing. To cover commonly and rarely occurring alleles, a selection of homozygous and heterozygous animals were analyzed and subjected to sequence studies. The alleles consisted of simple tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeat patterns as well as compound and highly complex repeat patterns. Several alleles revealing the same fragment size but different repeat structures were found. The allele designation described here was adopted to the number of repeats, including all variable regions within the amplified fragment. In a second step the most commonly occurring alleles were added to an allelic ladder for each marker allowing a reliable typing of all alleles differing in size. A total number of 142 unrelated dogs from surrounding municipal animal homes, private households, and canines in police duty were analyzed. The data were added to a population database providing allele frequencies for each marker.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Animals
  • DNA Fingerprinting / standards*
  • Dogs
  • Gene Frequency
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences*
  • Terminology as Topic*