Maintenance immunosuppression regimens: conversion, minimization, withdrawal, and avoidance

Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Apr;47(4 Suppl 2):S37-51. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.12.045.


A wide choice of drug combinations is available to clinicians for immunosuppression regimens for their kidney transplant patients. Although many protocols have minimized early graft loss, the optimal long-term regimen is unknown. Recent studies clearly showed that cardiovascular death is now the leading cause of graft loss. Strategies must be developed that address this risk while keeping immunologic events low. Transplant physicians have focused on exploring regimens that minimize or avoid the use of corticosteroids. Studies also have started to explore protocols that minimize calcineurin inhibitor therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Risk Factors


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Immunosuppressive Agents