c-MYC deregulation is involved in melphalan resistance of multiple myeloma: role of PDGF-BB

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Jan-Mar 2006;19(1):67-79.


Oncogenes are important regulators of cancer growth and progression and their action may be modulated by proteins of the growth factor family, such as angiogenic cytokines, known to be strongly involved in neoplastic evolution. Reciprocal interactions between oncogenes and angiogenic modulators may represent, in haematological neoplasms, including multiple myeloma (MM), a possible mechanism of drug resistance. The aim of this work is to investigate in vitro and in vivo whether or not c-myc deregulation is involved in the melphalan resistance elicited by myeloma patients and consequently to clarify the role of the angiogenic factor PDGF-BB in modulating c-myc protein expression. Fifty-one MM patients on chemotherapy with melphalan were analyzed for structural alterations of the c-myc gene, c-Myc protein expression, as well as for serum PDGF-BB release. For the in vitro study, two M14-derived established cell clones, differing for the c-Myc protein expression (c-Myc low -expressing or constitutively expressing clones) were used. Our results show that PDGF-BB is able to up-regulate Myc expression and reduce melphalan sensitivity of tumor cell clones, constitutively expressing c-myc gene product. In addition, down-regulation of c-Myc protein induces the expression of PDGF-beta receptor molecules and reduces PDGF-BB release. In agreement with these results, in vivo data show that melphalan-resistant MM patients present overexpressed c-Myc protein and higher serum PDGF-BB receptor levels compared to minor responding patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Becaplermin
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Melphalan / pharmacology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics*
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / biosynthesis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / drug effects


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis
  • Becaplermin
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
  • Melphalan