Replication-selective oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) has shown considerable promise as an antitumor agent. Although the current oncolytic HSVs were exclusively constructed from HSV-1, HSV-2 has several unique features that could be exploited to convert the virus to an oncolytic agent. The N-terminus of the HSV-2 ICP10 gene product contains a well-defined serine/threonine protein kinase (PK) domain, which can activate the Ras/MEK/MAPK mitogenic pathway and thus facilitate efficient HSV-2 replication. Because the Ras signaling pathway is a key regulator of normal cell growth and malignant transformation, it is aberrantly activated in many human tumors. Here we report that a mutant HSV-2 (FusOn-H2), constructed by replacing the PK domain of ICP10 with the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein, can selectively replicate in and thus lyse tumor cells. Moreover, infection of FusOn-H2 led to syncytia formation in tumor cells, providing an additional tumor-destroying mechanism. A single moderate-dose injection of FusOn-H2 into established breast cancer xenografts completely eradicated the tumors in more than 80% of the animals, leading to their long-term survival. We conclude that this HSV-2 mutant is a safe and potent oncolytic agent useful for the treatment of malignant solid tumors such as breast cancer.