Purpose: This study evaluated, in vitro, the effects of different instrumentations used in the treatment of peri-implantitis on implant surfaces coated with hydroxyapatite or titanium plasma spray (TPS).
Materials and methods: There were 14 cylindrical rough implants used, including 7 hydroxyapatite and 7 TPS coated. Split in 2 parts for a total of 24 experimental surfaces, implants were treated with a stainless-steel curette, plastic curette, ultrasonic scaler tip, and air-powder-water spray. There was 1 hydroxyapatite and 1 TPS implant used as controls. Profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine instrumented surfaces for variations in surface topography.
Results: All experimental procedures determined changes on tested rough implant surfaces. Such alterations were related to the implant coating material, and the procedure consisting in coating removal and/or leveling of surface roughness.
Conclusion: Although a plastic curette and air-powder-water spray induced less implant surface alterations, these instrumentations left deposits on the surface that may affect, in vivo, the tissue healing process.