Accidental radiation exposures or radiation therapy can cause internal and external damage including radiodermatitis. Even though radiodermatitis is one of the dose limiting factors in radiotherapy, the immunological nature of it is not yet been clearly understood. In this study, we have examined the alteration in immune cell population during the radiodermatitis process. A radiodermatitis model was established in HR-1 mice by locally exposing a posterior dorsal region to 10 Gy X-ray/day for 4 consecutive days. Collagen accumulation, redness, erythema, and dry desquamation of the skin were detected after X-irradiation. The size and total cell number of the spleen decreased immediately after X-irradiation, compared to those of the sham-irradiated mice, and recovered to the normal levels two weeks later. Reduction and recovery of the bone marrow cell population preceded a similar change of the spleen cell population. The proportion of CD4+ T cell increased, while the proportion of CD8+ T cell decreased ahead of the obvious skin damage, in both lymph node and spleen of the irradiated mice. Interestingly, the proportion of splenic monocytes/macrophages was expanded gradually at a similar kinetics with the aggravation of the radiodermatitis. The infiltration of the CD11b+ monocyte/macrophage to the X-irradiated skin also coincided with the development of radiodermatitis. These altered proportions of immune cells may play important roles in radiodermatitis.