Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate

J Econ Entomol. 2006 Feb;99(1):176-81. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493(2006)099[0176:MODMLP]2.0.CO;2.


Six to nine populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were collected annually from fields of crucifer vegetables in the United States and Mexico from 2001 to 2004 for baseline susceptibility tests and resistance monitoring to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate. A discriminating concentration for resistance monitoring to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was determined based on baseline data in 2001 and was used in the diagnostic assay for each population in 2002-2004 together with a discriminating concentration for spinosad determined previously. Most populations were susceptible to all three insecticides, but a population from Hawaii in 2003 showed high levels of resistance to indoxacarb. Instances of resistance to spinosad occurred in Hawaii (2000), Georgia (2001), and California (2002) as a consequence of a few years of extensive applications in each region. The collaborative monitoring program between university and industry scientists we discuss in this article has provided useful information to both parties as well as growers who use the products. These studies provide a baseline for developing a more effective resistance management program for diamondback moth.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Assay
  • Drug Combinations
  • Geography
  • Insecticide Resistance*
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Ivermectin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Ivermectin / toxicity
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Macrolides / toxicity*
  • Mexico
  • Moths / drug effects*
  • Oxazines / toxicity*
  • Toxicity Tests
  • United States


  • Drug Combinations
  • Insecticides
  • Macrolides
  • Oxazines
  • indoxacarb
  • Ivermectin
  • emamectin benzoate
  • spinosad