At first the association between body mass, reflux, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma might seem easily interpreted, but a more thorough assessment of the published work shows that several factors are missing. Reflux and obesity are established risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, particularly when they occur in combination. However, the interplay between these and other factors with regard to oesophageal adenocarcinoma is uncertain. Moreover, the contribution of these risk factors in explaining the increasing incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is unclear, because the trends in prevalence of reflux and obesity do not match those of incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Moreover, none of these factors contribute strongly to the striking predominance of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in men. Thus, several factors that can explain the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma need to be addressed.