The X;Y translocation break point sequence in an XX male patient with prepubertal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was characterized with the intention of identifying a predisposing gene(s) for SLE. Spectral karyotyping of the patient's metaphase chromosomes showed normal autosomes and 2 X chromosomes, one of which displayed a small portion of the Y chromosome. Using a Y chromosome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) walking strategy and inverse PCR, we found that the abnormal recombination occurred between retroviral long terminal repeats located at Xp22.33 (position 0.95 Mb; inside the pseudoautosomal regions) and Yp11.2 (4.20 Mb) downstream of the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene. The complete DNA sequence of the break point was determined, revealing a partial duplication of the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) in the derivative X chromosome and causing a partial trisomy of the 12 known genes located between the interleukin-3 receptor alpha (IL3RA; position 1.1 Mb on the X and Y chromosomes) and CD99 (position 2.2 Mb) genes inclusively. All other X chromosome genes were present as 2 copies. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed the presence of 3 copies of each of the 12 genes in the patient's genomic DNA. We also found that RNA for 1 of the candidate genes was indeed overexpressed in the patient's blood as compared with normal subjects. Taken together, the uniqueness of the translocation, the rarity of severe prepubertal SLE in males, and the presence of SLE in some patients with Klinefelter's syndrome (who have a triplication of the 2 PAR regions) point to a possible relationship between the partial triplication of the PAR1 region and the development of SLE.