By using a quantitative immunoblotting technique on protein extracts of human macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells, we have analyzed the self-reactive repertoires of IgG from 20 patients with limited cutaneous SSc, 40 patients with diffuse SSc and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Serum IgG from 15/20 patients with limited cutaneous SSc and anti-centromere antibodies bound to at least one of the two 75- and 85-kDa protein bands in the different endothelial cell extracts, whereas IgG from healthy controls or patients with diffuse SSc did not. N-terminal sequencing of the 75- and 85-kDa bands identified CENP-B as the sole antigen in both bands. Moreover, IgG from all of the SSc patients who recognized the 75- and/or 85-kDa bands bound to a full-length recombinant CENP-B protein as assessed by ELISA, whereas IgG from other SSc patients did not. The main target of anti-endothelial cell antibodies in patients with limited cutaneous SSc is the nuclear and ubiquitous protein CENP-B.