Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in 3-year-old Ukrainian children

Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Apr;114(4):603-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7898.


Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 48 children 3 years of age in Mariupol, Ukraine, who lived near a steel mill and coking facility and compared these with 1-OHP concentrations measured in 42 children of the same age living in the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine. Children living in Mariupol had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP and creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHP than did children living in Kiev (adjusted: 0.69 vs. 0.34 micromol/mol creatinine, p < 0.001; unadjusted: 0.42 vs. 0.30 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Combined, children in both cities exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes had higher 1-OHP than did children not exposed (0.61 vs. 0.42 micromol/mol creatinine; p = 0.04; p = 0.07 after adjusting for city). In addition, no significant differences were seen with sex of the children. Our sample of children in Mariupol has the highest reported mean urinary 1-OHP concentrations in children studied to date, most likely due to their proximity to a large industrial point source of PAHs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / urine*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polycyclic Compounds / urine*
  • Pyrenes / analysis*


  • Biomarkers
  • Polycyclic Compounds
  • Pyrenes
  • 1-hydroxypyrene