Background: The aim of this study was to compare the response to conventional periodontal treatment between patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus from a clinical and metabolic standpoint.
Methods: A prospective, parallel, comparative longitudinal clinical study was performed between type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics with moderate generalized chronic periodontitis. The study period was 6 months. Conventional periodontal scaling and root planing were performed, and the response to this treatment was compared between the groups at 3 and 6 months, measuring the plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, level of clinical attachment, and gingival recession. In the diabetic patients, the clinical response was related to measurements of HbA1c and glucose in blood at 3 and 6 months.
Results: An improvement in all clinical variables was observed, with no statistically significant differences between the groups, with the exception of probing depth (P <0.0207). The improvement observed in blood HbA1c levels confirmed a positive metabolic response to periodontal treatment, with a lower value for this variable at each measurement time.
Conclusions: Both groups of patients showed a clinical improvement after basic non-surgical periodontal treatment. The diabetic patients showed improved metabolic control (lower HbA1c) at 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment.