This multilevel study included 11,175 participants interviewed 2000-2002 in Sweden. The association between neighbourhood linking social capital (voting in national elections) and self-rated health was analysed. Individuals living in neighbourhoods with the lowest levels of linking social capital exhibited a significantly higher risk of poor health than individuals living in neighbourhoods with the highest levels of linking social capital, after adjustment for individual characteristics, including individual voting. The neighbourhood variance indicated significant differences in self-rated health between neighbourhoods. Both individuals and neighbourhoods need to be targeted in order to enhance people's health in neighbourhoods with low linking social capital.