The regulon of the sigma factor RpoS was defined in Geobacter sulfurreducens by using a combination of DNA microarray expression profiles and proteomics. An rpoS mutant was examined under steady-state conditions with acetate as an electron donor and fumarate as an electron acceptor and with additional transcriptional profiling using Fe(III) as an electron acceptor. Expression analysis revealed that RpoS acts as both a positive and negative regulator. Many of the RpoS-dependent genes determined play roles in energy metabolism, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle, signal transduction, transport, protein synthesis and degradation, and amino acid metabolism and transport. As expected, RpoS activated genes involved in oxidative stress resistance and adaptation to nutrient limitation. Transcription of the cytochrome c oxidase operon, necessary for G. sulfurreducens growth using oxygen as an electron acceptor, and expression of at least 13 c-type cytochromes, including one previously shown to participate in Fe(III) reduction (MacA), were RpoS dependent. Analysis of a subset of the rpoS mutant proteome indicated that 15 major protein species showed reproducible differences in abundance relative to those of the wild-type strain. Protein identification using mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of seven of these proteins correlated with the microarray data. Collectively, these results indicate that RpoS exerts global effects on G. sulfurreducens physiology and that RpoS is vital to G. sulfurreducens survival under conditions typically encountered in its native subsurface environments.