Bone marrow transplantation is a therapeutic treatment for many life-threatening hematologic disorders, especially leukemia and certain immune deficiency diseases. However, acute graft-versus-host disease is often associated with bone marrow transplantation. In mice, allogeneic GVHD appears to be mediated by both host natural killer cells and donor T cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that treatment with either YN1/1.7 or M17/4.2 mabs is immunomodulatory and inhibits both the mixed lymphocyte reaction and natural killer cell activity. In addition, utilizing an allogeneic model of acute, lethal GVHD with C57B1/6 mice as donors and sublethally irradiated BDF1 mice as recipients, treatment of host mice with anti-LFA-1 alpha (M17/4.2) or anti-MALA-2 (YN1/1.7) mabs at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced GVHD and enhanced survival. Mabs to lymphocyte adhesion molecules such as LFA-1 alpha and MALA-2 may provide a useful therapy for the treatment of GVHD.