We prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against hepatocellular carcinoma using cell suspensions isolated from surgical fresh hepatoma specimens as antigen. Totally we got 6 strains of hybridoma cell lines stably secreting MAbs for more than 2 years. Immunocytochemically they stained positively most of the paraffin embedded hepatoma tissues (63.1 to 91.1%) without reaction to the normal liver tissues. Localization of human hepatoma with 125I or 131I labelled MAbs in nude mice was done by IV injection, which showed clear tumor image by ECT radioimmunodetection and autoradiography of tissues. The T/N ratios of different MAbs were 3.1, 3.6, 5.15 and that of HAb 18-F (ab')2 was 14.4. Among 15 patients suspected to have hepatoma and given the labelled MAb, 13 proved pathologically to be hepatocellular carcinoma.