Background: Only unbiased estimates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence and trends are useful for disease control-identification of risk factors and measuring the effect of intervention.
Methods: Age- and sex-standardized incidences (with trends) were calculated for all-cause and diabetic/non-diabetic ESRD for persons aged 0-14, 15-29, 30-44 and 45-64 years in 13 populations identified geographically, and six populations identified by ethnicity.
Results: The incidence of ESRD varied most with age, ethnicity and prevalence of diabetes. All non-Europid populations had excess ESRD, chiefly due to rates of type 2 diabetic ESRD that were greater than accounted for by community prevalences of diabetes. Their rates of non-diabetic ESRD also were raised, with contributions from most common primary renal diseases except type 1 diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. The ESRD rates generally were low, and more similar than different, in Europid populations, except for variable contributions from type 1 (high in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Canada) and type 2 (high in Austria and Canada) diabetes. In Europid populations during 1998-2002, all-cause ESRD declined by 2% per year in persons aged 0-44 years, and all non-diabetic ESRD by a similar amount in persons aged 45-64 years, in whom diabetic ESRD had increased by 3% per year.
Conclusions: Increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and to kidney disease progression characterizes excess ESRD in non-Europid peoples. The decline in all-cause ESRD in young persons, and non-diabetic ESRD in the middle-aged, probably reflects improving management of progressive renal disease.