The recent identification of TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome II (MFSII) [Mizuguchi et al. (2004); Nat Genet 36:855-860] and of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome (LDS) [Loeys et al. (2005); Nat Genet 37:275-281] [OMIM 609192] has provided direct evidence of abnormal signaling in transforming growth factors beta (TGF-beta) in the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome (MFS). In light of this, we describe the phenotypes and genotypes of five individuals. Patient 1 had MFS and abnormal cranial dura. Patient 2 had severe early onset MFS and an abnormal skull. Patients 3 and 4 had probable Furlong syndrome (FS). Patient 5 had marfanoid (MD) features, mental retardation (MR), and a deletion of chromosome 15q21.1q21.3. All patients had a condition within the MFS, MD-craniosynostosis (CS) or MD-MR spectrum. The names of these entities may become redundant, and instead, come to be considered within the spectrum of TGF-beta signaling pathway disorders. Two recurrent heterozygous FBN1 mutations were found in Patients 1 and 2, and an identical novel heterozygous de novo TGFBR1 mutation was found in Patients 3 and 4, in whom altered fibrillin-1 processing was demonstrated previously [Milewicz et al. (2000); Am J Hum Genet 67:279]. A heterozygous FBN1 deletion was found in Patient 5. These findings support the notion that perturbation of extracellular matrix homeostasis and/or remodeling caused by abnormal TGF-beta signaling is the core pathogenetic mechanism in MFS and related entities including the MD-CS syndromes.