Inherited prion diseases are caused by PRNP coding mutations and display marked phenotypic heterogeneity within families segregating the same pathogenic mutation. A proline-to-leucine substitution at prion protein (PrP) residue 102 (P102L), classically associated with the Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) phenotype, also shows marked clinical and pathological heterogeneity, including patients with a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) phenotype. To date, this heterogeneity has been attributed to temporal and spatial variance in the propagation of distinct protease-resistant (PrP(Sc)) isoforms of mutant PrP. Here, using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes wild-type PrP, but not PrP 102L, we reveal a spectrum of involvement of wild-type PrP(Sc) in P102L individuals. PrP(Sc) isoforms derived from wild-type and mutant PrP are distinct both from each other and from those seen in sporadic and acquired CJD. Such differential propagation of disease-related isoforms of wild-type PrP and PrP 102L provides a molecular mechanism for generation of the multiple clinicopathological phenotypes seen in inherited prion disease.