Parental smoking and the risk of childhood leukemia

Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 15;163(12):1091-100. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwj143. Epub 2006 Apr 5.


Cigarette smoke has been linked to adult myeloid leukemia; however, the association between parental smoking and childhood leukemia remains unclear. Parental smoking and the risk of childhood leukemia were examined in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, a case-control study, between 1995 and 2002. The present analysis included 327 acute childhood leukemia cases (281 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)) and 416 controls matched on age, sex, maternal race, and Hispanic ethnicity. Maternal smoking was not associated with an increased risk of either ALL or AML. Paternal preconception smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of AML (odds ratio = 3.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 14.17); an increased risk for ALL was suggestive for paternal preconception smoking (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 2.04). Greater risks of ALL were observed compared with the risk associated with paternal preconception smoking alone, when paternal preconception smoking was combined with maternal postnatal smoking (p(interaction) = 0.004) or postnatal passive smoking exposure (p(interaction) = 0.004). These results strongly suggest that exposure to paternal preconception smoking alone or in combination with postnatal passive smoking may be important in the risk of childhood leukemia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • California / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / epidemiology
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Parents*
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / etiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution