African Americans have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than Caucasians in early chronic kidney disease; however, limited data describe racial and ethnic differences in the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study among 271 102 incident dialysis patients receiving renal replacement therapy enrolled in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) for whom Medicare was the primary insurer between 1995 and 2000. The incidence and risk of any MI (non-fatal or fatal) estimated by Cox proportional hazards models was the primary outcome of interest. Of those with prevalent CVD at baseline (118 708), 14 849 had an incident non-fatal MI compared with 9926 events for those without prevalent CVD (152 394). Patients with prevalent CVD had higher crude rates of combined fatal and non-fatal MI (99.3/1000 person-years vs 42.9/1000 person-years) compared with those without prevalent CVD. Among those with prevalent CVD, African Americans (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.62-0.68), Asian Americans (aRR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.66-0.83), and Hispanics (aRR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.68-0.77) were 26-35% less likely to have an incident MI compared to Caucasians. Similarly, among those without prevalent CVD, racial/ethnic minorities were 26-42% less likely to have an incident MI compared to Caucasians. We conclude that in a national setting where comparable access to dialysis and associated medical care, exist, racial/ethnic minorities were found to have a lower risk of non-fatal and fatal MI than Caucasians.