Increased free malondialdehyde concentrations in smokers normalise with a mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrate: a pilot study

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(4):391-5. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2006.084.


Background: Cigarette smoking, a cardiovascular risk factor leading to oxygen free radical formation, is involved in the development of serious pathological conditions. On the other hand, a healthy diet and adequate supplementation can help prevent many diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate in healthy light smokers the effects of supplementation with mixed fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate on homocysteine metabolism and oxidative status.

Methods: In this pilot study, 32 healthy volunteers, 16 light smokers and 16 non-smokers, on twice daily supplementation were monitored at time zero and after 30 days. Plasma homocysteine, and serum vitamin B(12) and folate concentrations were measured by immunoenzymatic assays; reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and thiol groups by spectrophotometric methods; and total and free malondialdehyde concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with isotopic dilution.

Results: Baseline free malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers and normalised after 30-day supplementation. Baseline results for all the other parameters remained unchanged after supplementation, with no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers.

Conclusion: This is the first study showing a significant decrease in free malondialdehyde levels in light smokers after 1-month phytonutrient supplementation.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Homocysteine / blood
  • Homocysteine / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Pilot Projects
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / blood
  • Smoking / metabolism*
  • Smoking / therapy*
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / blood
  • Vegetables*


  • Antioxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Homocysteine
  • Malondialdehyde