Responses of inflammatory markers to a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet: effects of energy intake

Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83(4):774-9. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/83.4.774.

Abstract

Background: Inflammation contributes to atherogenesis. Dietary fats may be proinflammatory.

Objective: The objective was to determine whether energy intake modulates the effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate intakes on inflammatory markers.

Design: Twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women with a mean (+/-SD) age of 61 +/- 11 y, who were not receiving hormone replacement therapy, were fed eucaloric diets to reduce their fat intake from 35% to 15% of energy. Next, the women consumed a 15%-fat ad libitum diet under free-living conditions. Serum highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, HDL serum amyloid A, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at the end of the eucaloric and ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate intakes.

Results: The eucaloric diet decreased adiponectin from 16.3 +/- 2.1 to 14.2 +/- 2.0 mg/L (P < 0.05) and increased triacylglycerol from 131 +/- 11 to 164 +/- 14 mg/dL (P < 0.01). The ad libitum low-fat diet caused 6 kg weight loss and decreased highly sensitive C-reactive protein from 4.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.5 +/- 0.5 mg/L (P < 0.01), decreased HDL serum amyloid A from 10.3 +/- 1.8 to 5.7 +/- 1.3 mg/L (P < 0.001), increased adiponectin from 14.2 +/- 2.0 to 16.3 +/- 1.7 mg/L (P < 0.05), and decreased triacylglycerol from 164 +/- 14 to 137 +/- 15 mg/dL (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: During the eucaloric phase, the low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet exerted unfavorable effects on the inflammatory markers. In contrast, the ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate intake caused weight loss and affected inflammatory markers favorably. Thus, the energy content of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet determines changes in inflammatory markers.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Diet Records
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake* / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause
  • Serum Amyloid A Protein / metabolism
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Weight Loss / drug effects
  • Weight Loss / physiology

Substances

  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-6
  • Serum Amyloid A Protein
  • Triglycerides
  • C-Reactive Protein