Background: Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt (AB-yogurt) can suppress Helicobacter pylori. Improvement of the eradication rate by quadruple therapy of residual H. pylori after failed triple therapy is needed.
Objective: We tested whether prior treatment with AB-yogurt improved the efficacy of quadruple therapy in eradicating residual H. pylori after failed triple therapy.
Design: One hundred thirty-eight patients in whom triple therapy failed were enrolled for a culture study of H. pylori to assess antimicrobial resistance. These patients were then randomly assigned in equal numbers to either a yogurt-plus-quadruple therapy group or a quadruple therapy-only group. The patients received 1 wk of quadruple therapy with or without a 4-wk pretreatment with AB-yogurt (400 mL/d). In the yogurt-plus-quadruple group, excessive delta(13)CO(2)/mL values of the (13)C-urea breath test were collected before and every 2 wk during the 4-wk ingestion of yogurt. For both groups, a (13)C-urea breath test was conducted > or =6 wk after the quadruple therapy to assess the outcome of residual H. pylori eradication.
Results: For the patients in the yogurt-plus-quadruple therapy group infected with either antibiotic-sensitive or -resistant H. pylori, the excessive delta(13)CO(2)/mL values of the (13)C-urea breath test were significantly decreased after the 4-wk ingestion of AB-yogurt (P < 0.0001). The yogurt-plus-quadruple therapy group had a higher H. pylori eradication rate than did the quadruple therapy-only group (intention-to-treat analysis: 85% compared with 71.1%, P < 0.05; per-protocol analysis: 90.8% compared with 76.6%, P < 0.05).
Conclusion: A 4-wk pretreatment with AB-yogurt can decrease H. pylori loads despite antimicrobial resistance, thus improving the efficacy of quadruple therapy in eradicating residual H. pylori.