Little is known about factors that contribute to either emotional or behavior outcomes following screening for coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this prospective study was to explore these outcomes, along with potentially contributing factors in individuals enrolled in a screening trial for asymptomatic CAD. Included were 47 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected at study baseline and 3 and 6 months following entry by self-administered questionnaires and telephone follow-up. Emotional outcomes (quality of life and anxiety) tended to improve in those who underwent more aggressive screening with myocardial perfusion imaging, as well as in those who discussed the results of laboratory tests with their providers. Lower levels of diabetes competence and higher levels of controlled motivation for diet were associated with poorer emotional outcomes. Improvements in CAD risk factor behaviors were not observed.